Alisma – Chi Alisma

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    Alisma - Chi Alisma Alisma genus freshwater aquarium plants 600 x 600
     
    Alisma – Chi Alisma
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    Species from this Genus – Các cây trong Chi này:

    Alisma

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
     
    Alisma
    water-plantains
    Alisma plantago-aquatica20090812 259.jpg  Alisma - Chi Alisma 220px Alisma plantago aquatica20090812 259
    Alisma plantago-aquatica
    Scientific classification
    Kingdom: Plantae
    (unranked): Angiosperms
    (unranked): Monocots
    Order: Alismatales
    Family: Alismataceae
    Genus: Alisma
    L.
    Species
    see text

    Alisma is a genus of flowering plants in the family Alismataceae, members of which are commonly known as water-plantains. The genus consists of aquatic plants with leaves either floating or submerged, found in a variety of still water habitats around the world (nearly worldwide).[1][2] The flowers are hermaphrodite, and are arranged in panicles, racemes, or umbels. Alisma flowers have six stamens, numerous free carpels in a single whorl, each with 1 ovule, and subventral styles. The fruit is an achene with a short beak.

    The nineteenth century British art and social critic John Ruskin believed that the particular curve of the leaf-ribs of Alisma represented a model of ‘divine proportion’ and helped shape his theory of Gothic architecture.[3]

    Copóg Phádraig (“leaf of Patrick“) is the Irish name for the water-plantain. It is reputed to ward off fairies.

    Water plantains are perennial plants. These herbs are usually emergent plants 0.1 – 1 m high. They have broad leaves that can be either tapered or rounded at the base. When submerged, the plant produces ribbon-like leaves. Inflorescences are highly branched. They produce whorls of perfect flowers either white or pinkish. The fruits are flat-sided nutlets 2.5 – 3 mm in length. These herbs usually flower in late May to early September, but thiscan vary with conditions.[4]

    Water-plantains are wetland plants and found in saturated soils and shallow water as well as marshes, wooded swamps, shrub swamps and flooded farmland. When introduced to an area, water plantain can rapidly reproduce.

    Species and subspecies[edit]

    The following taxa are recognized as of May 2014:[2]

    • Alisma × bjoerkqvistii Tzvelev – Russia
    • Alisma canaliculatum A.Braun & C.D.Bouché – eastern Asia
    • Alisma gramineum Lej. – Europe, Asia, North Africa; minor naturalization in North America
    • Alisma × juzepczukii Tzvelev – Russia
    • Alisma lanceolatum Withering – Europe, Asia, North Africa; naturalized in Australia, New Zealand, California etc.
    • Alisma nanum D.F.Cui – Xinjiang
    • Alisma orientale
    • Alisma plantago-aquatica L. – Europe, Asia, Africa
      • Alisma plantago-aquatica subsp. orientale (Sam.) Sam.
      • Alisma plantago-aquatica subsp. plantago-aquatica
    • Alisma × rhicnocarpum Schotsman – western Europe
    • Alisma subcordatum Raf. eastern North America
    • Alisma triviale Pursh – North America
    • Alisma wahlenbergii (Holmb.) Juz. Baltic Sea region

    References

    1. Jump up^ “Alisma”. Flora of North America.
    2. ^ Jump up to:ab Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    3. Jump up^ J. Mordaunt Crook, “Ruskinian Gothic” in The Ruskin Polygon: Essays on the Imagination of John Ruskin ed. John Dixon Hunt and Faith M. Holland (Manchester University Press, 1982) pp. 65–93.
    4. Jump up^ Gleason and Cronquist (1991); Fernald (1970); Voss (1972).

    External links

    Media related to Alisma at Wikimedia Commons
    Data related to Alisma at Wikispecies

    Species from this Genus – Các cây trong Chi này: