Alternanthera – Chi Alternanthera

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    Alternanthera - Chi Alternanthera Alternanthera floridana aquaticum genus freshwater aquarium plants 600 x 600
     
    Alternanthera – Chi Alternanthera
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    Species from this Genus – Các cây trong Chi này:

    Alternanthera

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
     
    Alternanthera
    Starr 030523-0122 Alternanthera pungens.jpg  Alternanthera - Chi Alternanthera 220px Starr 030523 0122 Alternanthera pungens
    khakiweed (Alternanthera caracasana)
    Scientific classification
    Kingdom: Plantae
    (unranked): Angiosperms
    (unranked): Eudicots
    (unranked): Core eudicots
    Order: Caryophyllales
    Family: Amaranthaceae
    Subfamily: Gomphrenoideae
    Genus: Alternanthera
    Forssk.
    Species
    80-200, see text

    Alternanthera is a genus of flowering plants in the amaranth family, Amaranthaceae. It is a widespread genus with most species occurring in the tropical Americas,[1][2] and others in Asia, Africa, and Australia.[2] Plants of the genus may be known generally as joyweeds, or Joseph’s coat.[3] Several species are notorious noxious weeds.[4]

    Contents

    • 1. Description
    • 2. Biology
    • 3. Ecology
    • 4. Uses
    • 5. Diversity
    • 6. See also
    • 7. References

    Description

    These are annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs. While some of the better-known species are aquatic plants, most are terrestrial.[4] They take many forms, from prostrate to erect to floating. The leaves are oppositely arranged. The inflorescence is a spike or a rounded head occurring in the leaf axils or the ends of branches. The flowers have 5 tepals. There are 3 to 5 stamens which are fused into a rim at the bases, and 5 pseudostaminodes, appendages between the stamens that are not true staminodes. The fruit is a utricle containing one seed.[2]

    Biology

    The photosynthetic pathways vary in this genus. Some Alternanthera species undergo C3 carbon fixation, and others have the C4 pathway. Certain other species have an intermediate C3-C4 pathway.[1][5]

    Ecology

    Many species have been reported as noxious weeds, including A. angustifolia, A. caracasana, A. denticulata, A. nana, A. nodiflora, A. paronychioides, A. philoxeroides, A. sessilis, A. tenella, and A. triandra.[4] The most important species is alligator weed (A. philoxeroides), a South American aquatic plant that has spread to other continents.[4] It is a weed of many kinds of agricultural crops, it is an invasive species that degrades native habitat, and its dense mats of vegetation clog waterways, slowing shipping and increasing flooding.[4]Alternanthera plants are known to produce allelopathic compounds that injure other plants, including crops.[4]

    Biological pest control agents now in use to reduce alligator weed infestations include the alligator weed flea beetle (Agasicles hygrophila), the alligator weed thrips (Amynothrips andersoni), and the alligator weed stem borer (Arcola malloi).[4]

    Uses

    A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis are eaten as vegetables in parts of Asia.[4]

    Some Alternanthera are used as ornamental plants.[4]

    Diversity

    Alternanthera - Chi Alternanthera 250px Alternanthera Party time

    Alternanthera ‘Party Time’

    Alternanthera - Chi Alternanthera 250px Alternanthera sessilis W2 IMG 3422

    Alternanthera sessilis

    Alternanthera - Chi Alternanthera 250px Alternanthera polygonoides2

    Alternanthera polygonoides
    Alternanthera - Chi Alternanthera 250px Alternanthera paronychioides in Hyderabad 2C AP W IMG 0412Alternanthera ficoidea
     

    It is not yet clear how many species belong in the genus. Estimates range between 80 and 200.[1][2][4][6]

    Species include:[3][6][7]

    • Alternanthera albotomentosa Suess.
    • Alternanthera angustifolia R.Br. – narrow-leaf joyweed
    • Alternanthera bettzickiana – calico-plant
    • Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze – Brazilian joyweed
    • Alternanthera caracasana Kunth – mat chaff-flower, washerwoman
    • Alternanthera crucis Bold. – West Indian joyweed
    • Alternanthera denticulata – lesser joyweed
    • Alternanthera echinocephala (Hook.f.) Christoph. – spiny-headed chaff flower,[8] seaurchin joyweed
    • Alternanthera ficoidea – parrotleaf, sanguinarea
    • Alternanthera filifolia (Hook.f.) J.T. Howell
    • Alternanthera flavescens – yellow joyweed
    • Alternanthera hassleriana Chodat – Hassler’s alternanthera
    • Alternanthera helleri (B.L.Rob.) J.T.Howell
    • Alternanthera littoralis P.Beauv.
    • Alternanthera maritima (Mart.) A.St.-Hil. – seaside joyweed
    • Alternanthera mexicana
    • Alternanthera nana – downy joyweed, hairy joyweed
    • Alternanthera nodiflora – common joyweed
    • Alternanthera olivacea
    • Alternanthera paronichyoides A.St.-Hil. – smooth joyweed
    • Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. – alligatorweed
    • Alternanthera pubiflora
    • Alternanthera reineckii Briq.
    • Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC. – rabbit-meat, sessile joyweed
    • Alternanthera tenella Colla
    • Alternanthera versicolor R.Br.

    See also

    List of freshwater aquarium plant species

    References

    1. ^ Jump up to:abc Sánchez-Del Pino, I., et al. (2012). Molecular phylogenetics of Alternanthera (Gomphrenoideae, Amaranthaceae): resolving a complex taxonomic history caused by different interpretations of morphological characters in a lineage with C4 and C3–C4 intermediate species. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 169(3), 493-517.
    2. ^ Jump up to:abcd Alternanthera. Flora of North America.
    3. ^ Jump up to:ab Alternanthera. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
    4. ^ Jump up to:abcdefghij Tanveer, A., et al. (2013). A review on genus Alternanthera weeds implications. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res 19(1), 53-58.
    5. Jump up^ Chinthapalli, B., et al. (2001). Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase purified from leaves of C3, C4, and C3-C4 intermediate species of Alternanthera: Properties at limiting and saturating bicarbonate. Photosynthetica 38(3), 415-19.
    6. ^ Jump up to:ab Alternanthera. The Plant List.
    7. Jump up^ GRIN Species Records of Alternanthera. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
    8. Jump up^ McMullen, Conley K. (1999). Flowering Plants of the Galápagos. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8621-0., p. 144

    Species from this Genus – Các cây trong Chi này: