Eichhornia – Chi Eichhornia

    Eichhornia - Chi Eichhornia Eichhornia genus freshwater aquarium plants 600 x 600
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    Species from this Genus – Các cây trong Chi này:


    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Water hyacinth
    Common Water hyacinth.jpg  Eichhornia - Chi Eichhornia 220px Common Water hyacinth
    Common water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
    Scientific classification
    Kingdom: Plantae
    (unranked): Angiosperms
    (unranked): Monocots
    (unranked): Commelinids
    Order: Commelinales
    Family: Pontederiaceae
    Genus: Eichhornia
    Seven species (from Tropicos):
    Eichhornia azurea – Anchored water hyacinth
    Eichhornia crassipes – Common water hyacinth
    Eichhornia diversifolia – Variableleaf water hyacinth
    Eichhornia heterosperma
    Eichhornia natans
    Eichhornia paniculata – Brazilian water hyacinth
    Eichhornia paradoxa

    Eichhornia, water hyacinth, is a genus of aquatic flowering plants in the family Pontederiaceae. The genus is native to South America. E. crassipes has become widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions and is a significant invasive species.


    • 1Description
    • 2Invasiveness as an exotic plant
    • 3Uses
    • 4References
    • 5External links


    Eichhornia species are perennial aquatic plants (or hydrophytes) native to tropical and sub-tropical South America, excepting E. natans from Africa. An erect stalk supports a single spike of up to 30 conspicuously attractive flowers, mostly lavender to pink in colour with six petals. When not in bloom, water hyacinth may be mistaken for frog’s-bit (Limnobium spongia). The common water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) are vigorous growers known to double their population in two weeks.

    Invasiveness as an exotic plant

    Eichhornia - Chi Eichhornia 220px Water hyacinth


    Common water hyacinth in flower

    Water hyacinth has been widely introduced in North America, Asia, Australia, Africa and New Zealand. They can be found in large water areas such as Louisiana, or in the Kerala Backwaters in India. In many areas it, particularly E. crassipes, is an important and pernicious invasive species. First introduced to North America in 1884, an estimated 50 kilograms per square metre of hyacinth once choked Florida’s waterways,[1] although the problem there has since been mitigated.[citation needed] When not controlled, water hyacinth will cover lakes and ponds entirely; this dramatically impacts water flow, blocks sunlight from reaching native aquatic plants, and starves the water of oxygen, often killing fish (or turtles). The plants also create a prime habitat for mosquitos[citation needed], the classic vectors of disease, and a species of snail known to host a parasitic flatworm which causes schistosomiasis (snail fever)[citation needed]. Directly blamed for starving subsistence farmers in Papua New Guinea[citation needed], water hyacinth remains a major problem where effective control programs are not in place. Water hyacinth is often problematic in man-made ponds if uncontrolled, but can also provide a food source for gold fish, keep water clean [2][3] and help to provide oxygen[citation needed] to man-made ponds.

    Water hyacinth often invades bodies of water that have been impacted by human activities[citation needed]. For example, the plants can unbalance natural lifecycles in artificial reservoirs or in eutrophied lakes that receive large amounts of nutrients.

    Eichhornia crassipes, the common water hyacinth, has become an invasive plant species on Lake Victoria in Africa after it was introduced into the area in the 1980s[citation needed].

    Eichhornia - Chi Eichhornia 220px Dried Water Hyacinth in Bangladesh


    Dried Water Hyacinth in Bangladesh


    Since the water hyacinths are so prolific, harvesting them for industrial use serves also as a means of environmental control.

    In north-east India, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam the water hyacinth’s stems are used as a braiding material and a source of fibers. Strings of dried fibers are woven or interlinked together to form a braid or cord used for making bags, footwear, wreaths, hats, vases, Christmas lanterns, and more decorative materials. Dried stems are used for baskets and furniture. Water hyacinth fibers are used as a raw material for paper.

    Since the plant has abundant nitrogen content, it can be used as a substrate for biogas production and the sludge obtained from the biogas. However, due to easy accumulation of toxins, the plant is prone to get contaminated when used as feed.

    The plant is extremely tolerant of, and has a high capacity for, the uptake of heavy metals, including cadmium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, lead and mercury, which could make it suitable for the biocleaning of industrial wastewater [4],[5],[6],.[7] In addition to heavy metals, Eichhornia crassipes can also remove other toxins, such as cyanide, which is environmentally beneficial in areas that have endured gold mining operations.[8]

    Water hyacinth removes arsenic from arsenic contaminated drinking water. It may be a useful tool in removing arsenic from tube well water in Bangladesh.[9]

    Water hyacinth is also observed to enhance nitrification in waste water treatment cells of living technology. Their root zones are superb micro-sites for bacterial communities.[2]

    Water hyacinth is a common fodder plant in the third world especially Africa though excessive use can be toxic. It is high in protein (nitrogen) and trace minerals and the goat feces are a good source of fertilizer as well.


    1. Jump up^ “A Troublesome “Water Weed””. Popular science monthly: 429. January 1898. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
    2. ^ Jump up to:ab J. Todd, B. Josephson, The design of living technologies for waste treatment / Ecological Engineering 6 (1996) 109-136
    3. Jump up^ Water Hyacinth For Nutrient Removal, Orange County Water Conservation Department Orlando, Florida, http://www.apms.org/japm/vol06/v6p27.pdf |accessdate=31 July 2013
    4. Jump up^ Upadhyay, Alka R.; B. D. Tripathi (2007). “Principle and Process of Biofiltration of Cd, Cr, Co, Ni & Pb from Tropical Opencast Coalmine Effluent”. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. Springer. 180 (1 – 4): 213–223. doi:10.1007/s11270-006-9264-1. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
    5. Jump up^ Abou-Shanab, R. A. I.; Angle, JS; Van Berkum, P; et al. (2007). “Chromate-Tolerant Bacteria for Enhanced Metal Uptake by Eichhornia Crassipes (MART.)”. International Journal of Phytoremediation. 9 (2): 91–105. doi:10.1080/15226510701232708. PMID 18246718.
    6. Jump up^ Maine, M.A.; Sune, N; Hadad, H; Sanchez, G; Bonetto, C; et al. (2006). “Nutrient and metal removal in a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment from a metallurgic industry”. Ecological Engineering. Elsevier. 26 (4): 341–347. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2005.12.004.
    7. Jump up^ Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, N; Porter-Goff, E; et al. (2007). “Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants”. Environmental Pollution. Elsevier. 145 (1): 234–237. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.03.017. PMID 16781033.
    8. Jump up^ Ebel, Mathias; Evangelou, MW; Schaeffer, A; et al. (2007). “Cyanide phytoremediation by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes)”. Chemosphere. Elsevier. 66 (5): 816–823. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.06.041. PMID 16870228.
    9. Jump up^ Misbahuddin, M.; Fariduddin, A.T.M. (2002). “Water Hyacinth Removes Arsenic from Arsenic-Contaminated Drinking Water”. Archives of Environmental Health. 57: 516- 518.

    External links