Elodea – Chi Elodea

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    Elodea - Chi Elodea Elodea genus freshwater aquarium plants 600 x 600
     
    Đánh giá bài này

    Species from this Genus – Các cây trong Chi này:

    Elodea

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
     
    Elodea
    Elodea canadensis.jpeg  Elodea - Chi Elodea 220px Elodea canadensis
    Elodea canadensis foliage detail
    Scientific classification
    Kingdom: Plantae
    (unranked): Angiosperms
    (unranked): Monocots
    Order: Alismatales
    Family: Hydrocharitaceae
    Subfamily: Anacharioideae
    Genus: Elodea
    Michx. 1803 not J. St.-Hil. 1805 (Clusiaceae) nor Rich.
    Synonyms[2]
    • Anacharis Rich. illegitimate name
    • Serpicula Pursh 1816, illegitimate homonym not L. 1767 (syn ofLaurembergia in Haloragaceae) nor L.f. 1782 (syn of Hydrilla inHydrocharitaceae)[1]
    • Philotria Raf.
    • Udora Nutt.
    • Diplandra Bertero
    • Hydora Besser
    • Apalanthe Planch.

    Elodea is a genus of 6 species of aquatic plants often called the waterweeds described as a genus in 1803. Elodea is native to North and South America[2] and is also widely used as aquarium vegetation. It lives in fresh water.[3]

    The introduction of some species of Elodea into waterways in parts of Europe, Australia, Africa, Asia, and New Zealand has created a significant problem and it is now considered a noxious weed in these areas. An older name for this genus is Anacharis, which serves as a common name in North America.[4]

    Elodea canadensis, sometimes called American or Canadian water weed or pond weed, is widely known as the generic water weed. The use of these names causes it to be confused with similar-looking plants, like Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa) or hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata). American water weed is an attractive aquarium plant and is a good substitute for Brazilian elodea. It can be used for science experiments in classrooms demonstrating how plants use carbon dioxide with the usage of bromothymol blue.

    The American water weed lives entirely underwater with the exception of small white flowers which bloom at the surface and are attached to the plant by delicate stalks. It produces winter buds from the stem tips that overwinter on the lake bottom. It also often overwinters as an evergreen plant in mild climates. In the fall, leafy stalks will detach from the parent plant, float away, root, and start new plants. This is the American water weed’s most important method of spreading, while seed production plays a relatively minor role.[5]

    Silty sediments and water rich in nutrients favor the growth of American water weed in nutrient-rich lakes. However, the plants will grow in a wide range of conditions, from very shallow to deep water, and in many sediment types. It can even continue to grow unrooted, as floating fragments. It is found throughout temperate North America, where it is one of the most common aquatic plants.[5]

    American water weed is an important part of lake ecosystems. It provides good habitat for many aquatic invertebrates and cover for young fish and amphibians. Waterfowl, especially ducks, as well as beaver, muskrat and aquatic turtles eat this plant. It is also of economic importance as an attractive and easy to keep aquarium plant, although in the states of Alabama, New Hampshire, New York, South Carolina, and Washington it has been deemed an invasive species and is illegal to sell.[6]

    Species[2][7]
    1. Elodea bifoliata H.St.John – Canada (AB, SK), W United States (OR + CA to NM + MN)
    2. Elodea callitrichoides (Rich.) Casp. – Argentina, Uruguay
    3. Elodea canadensis Michx. – most of United States + Canada
    4. Elodea granatensis Humb. & Bonpl. – much of South America
    5. Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H.St.John – much of United States + Canada
    6. Elodea potamogeton (Bertero) Espinosa – Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador

    Chemical Control

    Chemical control methods against invasive Elodea are ineffective at eradicating Elodea, at best, only slowing the growth for a season or two.[8] As Elodea spreads into new ecosystems, it experiences rapid growth for 5–6 years and then slows as soil nutrients are used up.[9] Elodea is now threatening all of Europe, a wait and see approach has been deemed the best method of control.[10] Chemicals may be used in places that cause undue economic concerns, but very few aquatic herbicides are registered for aquatic use in the EU. Fluridone, the most commonly used aquatic herbicide is highly effective against Hydrilla, but only marginally effective against Elodea, especially at lower use rates.[11][12][13]

    References

    1. Jump up^ Tropicos, search for Serpicula
    2. ^ Jump up to:abc “World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew”. apps.kew.org. Retrieved 2017-01-31.
    3. Jump up^ Luteyn, J. L. 1999. Páramos, a checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden 84: viii–xv, 1–278
    4. Jump up^ “Elodea in Flora of North America @ efloras.org”. www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2017-01-31.
    5. ^ Jump up to:ab “Plants Profile for Elodea (waterweed)”. plants.usda.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-31.
    6. Jump up^ Elodea canadensis details from Pond Conservation website, a UK organisation
    7. Jump up^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
    8. Jump up^ “Efficacy of Fluridone, Penoxsulam, and Bispyribac-sodium on Variable-leaf Milfoil”. ResearchGate. Retrieved 2015-08-26.
    9. Jump up^ Thiébaut, Gabrielle (2005-09-01). “Does competition for phosphate supply explain the invasion pattern of Elodea species?”. Water Research. 39 (14): 3385–3393. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2005.05.036. ISSN 0043-1354. PMID 16026814.
    10. Jump up^ Lambertini, Carla; Riis, Tenna; Olesen, Birgit; Clayton, John S; Sorrell, Brian K; Brix, Hans (2010-06-18). “Genetic diversity in three invasive clonal aquatic species in New Zealand”. BMC Genetics. 11: 52. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-11-52. ISSN 1471-2156. PMC 2902404Freely accessible  Elodea - Chi Elodea 9px Lock green. PMID 20565861.
    11. Jump up^ Arias, Renée S.; Netherland, Michael D.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Puri, Atul; Dayan, Franck E. (2005-03-01). “Molecular evolution of herbicide resistance to phytoene desaturase inhibitors in Hydrilla verticillata and its potential use to generate herbicide-resistant crops”. Pest Management Science. 61 (3): 258–268. doi:10.1002/ps.1022. ISSN 1526-498X. PMID 15668922.
    12. Jump up^ Michel, Albrecht; Arias, Renee S.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Duke, Stephen O.; Netherland, Michael; Dayan, Franck E. (2004-10-01). “Somatic mutation-mediated evolution of herbicide resistance in the nonindigenous invasive plant hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata)”. Molecular Ecology. 13 (10): 3229–3237. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02280.x. ISSN 0962-1083. PMID 15367135.
    13. Jump up^ Sepro, Corp. “SONAR H4C Label” (PDF). Sonar H4C Aquatic Herbicide. Sepro.

    External links

    • Elodea - Chi Elodea 12px Commons logo Media related to Elodea at Wikimedia Commons
    • Jepson Manual Treatment