Hydrocotyle – Chi Hydrocotyle

    Hydrocotyle - Chi Hydrocotyle Hydrocotyle genus freshwater aquarium plants 600 x 600
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    Species from this Genus – Các cây trong Chi này:


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    Starr 010424-9001 Hydrocotyle bowlesioides.jpg  Hydrocotyle - Chi Hydrocotyle 220px Starr 010424 9001 Hydrocotyle bowlesioides
    Hydrocotyle bowlesioides
    Scientific classification
    Kingdom: Plantae
    (unranked): Angiosperms
    (unranked): Eudicots
    (unranked): Asterids
    Order: Apiales
    Family: Araliaceae
    Subfamily: Hydrocotyloideae
    Genus: Hydrocotyle[1][2][3]

    Hydrocotyle, sometimes called water pennywort,[4]Indian pennywort, marsh penny, thick-leaved pennywort and even white rot[5] is a genus of prostrate, perennial[6] aquatic or semi-aquatic plants formerly classified in the family Apiaceae, now in the family Araliaceae.[3]


    • 1Description
    • 2Selected species
    • 3Distribution
    • 4References
    • 5External links


    Water pennyworts, Hydrocotyles, are very common. They have long creeping stems that often form dense mats, often in and near ponds, lakes, rivers, marshes[4] and some species in coastal areas by the sea.[7][8]

    Simple, with small leafy outgrowth at the base, kidney shaped to round. Leaf edges are scalloped.
    Flower clusters are simple and flat-topped or rounded. Involucral bracts Inconspicuous bracts at the base of each flower. Indistinct sepals.
    Fruits and reproduction
    Elliptical to round with thin ridges and no oil tubes (vitta) which is characteristic in the fruit of umbelliferous plants.[6]
    The prostrate plants reproduce by seed and by sending roots from stem nodes.[9]

    Selected species

    The Hydrocotyle genus has between 75 and 100 species.[10] that grow in tropical and temperate regions worldwide[6] A few species have entered the world of cultivated ornamental aquatics.[11] A list of selected species:[1][2][3][10][12][13][14]

    • Hydrocotyle americana L. — American marshpennywort
    • Hydrocotyle batrachium Hance
    • Hydrocotyle benguetensis Elm.
    • Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. — largeleaf pennywort
    • Hydrocotyle bowlesioides Mathias & Constance — largeleaf marshpennywort
    • Hydrocotyle calcicola
    • Hydrocotyle dichondroides Makino
    • Hydrocotyle dielsiana
    • Hydrocotyle heteromeria — waxweed
    • Hydrocotyle hexagona
    • Hydrocotyle himalaica
    • Hydrocotyle hirsuta Sw. — yerba de clavo
    • Hydrocotyle hitchcockii
    • Hydrocotyle hookeri
    • Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb.
    • Hydrocotyle keelungensis Liu, Chao & Chuang
    • Hydrocotyle leucocephala Cham. & Schltdl. — Brazilian pennywort
    • Hydrocotyle mannii Hook.f.
    • Hydrocotyle microphylla A.Cunn.
    • Hydrocotyle moschata G. Forst. — musky marshpennywort
    • Hydrocotyle nepalensis Hook.
    • Hydrocotyle novae-zelandiae DC.
    • Hydrocotyle prolifera Kellogg — whorled marshpennywort
    • Hydrocotyle pseudoconferta
    • Hydrocotyle pusilla A. Rich. — tropical marshpennywort
    • Hydrocotyle ramiflora
    • Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L. f. — floating marshpennywort, floating marshpennywort, floating pennyroyal
    • Hydrocotyle salwinica
    • Hydrocotyle setulosa Hayata
    • Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. — lawn marshpennywort
    • Hydrocotyle tambalomaensis
    • Hydrocotyle tripartita
    • Hydrocotyle umbellata L. — manyflower marshpennywort, umbrella pennyroyal
    • Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. — whorled marshpennywort, whorled marshpennywort, whorled pennyroyal
    • Hydrocotyle vulgaris L.
    • Hydrocotyle wilfordii
    • Hydrocotyle wilsonii
    • Hydrocotyle yanghuangensis


    Hydrocotyleae grow in wet and damp places in the tropics and the temperate zones.[6]


    1. ^ Jump up to:ab Hydrocotyle L.”. African Plants Database. South African National Biodiversity Institute, the Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève and Tela Botanica. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    2. ^ Jump up to:ab Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). “Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Genus Hydrocotyle L.”. The PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture,. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    3. ^ Jump up to:abc Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (2006-04-02). “Genus: HydrocotyleL.”. Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    4. ^ Jump up to:ab University of Florida Herbarium (2005). “Hydrocotyle species“. Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Particulars and Photographs. University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    5. Jump up^ M. Grieve (1931). “Hydrocotyle”. A Modern Herbal. © Copyright Protected 1995-2008 Botanical.com. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    6. ^ Jump up to:abcd Flora of China. “Hydrocotyle Linn.”. Family List. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    7. Jump up^ Aluka. “Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. [family UMBELLIFERAE]”. African Plants. Ithaka Harbors, Inc. doi:10.5555/AL.AP.COMPILATION.PLANT-NAME-SPECIES.HYDROCOTYLE.BONARIENSIS. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    8. Jump up^ Klein, Alecsandro Schardosim; Citadini-Zanette, Vanilde; dos Santos, Robson (September 2007). “Florística e estrutura comunitária de restinga herbácea no município de Araranguá, Santa Catarina” (– Scholar search). Biotemas (in Portuguese). 20 (3): 15–26. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
    9. Jump up^ Watson, Mark F. “Hydrocotyle L”. Flora of Bhutan. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    10. ^ Jump up to:ab Flora of China. “1. Hydrocotyle Linnaeus“. Family List. 14. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    11. Jump up^ “Pennywort, Genus Hydrocotyle“. The Aquarium Gardener Series. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    12. Jump up^ Taiwan Plant Names. “Hydrocotyle Linn”. Family List. III. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    13. Jump up^ Madagascar Catalog. “Hydrocotyle L.”. Genus Page. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
    14. Jump up^ “hydrocotyle”. New Zealand Weeds. Massey University: Institute of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2008-04-25.

    External links

    • Hydrocotyle“. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 25 April 2008.
    • Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de; Poiret, Jean Louis Marie (1783–1808). “HYD”. Encyclopédie méthodique: botanique /Par m. le chevalier de Lamarck. Vol. 3. QK7.L36 1783-1808.