Lobelia – Chi Lobelia

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    Lobelia - Chi Lobelia Lobelia genus aquaticum genus freshwater aquarium plants 600 x 600
     
    Đánh giá bài này

    Species from this Genus – Các cây trong Chi này:

    Lobelia

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
     
    For other uses, see Lobelia (disambiguation).
    Lobelia
    Lobelia (aka).jpg  Lobelia - Chi Lobelia 220px Lobelia  28aka 29
    Lobelia erinus
    Scientific classification
    Kingdom: Plantae
    (unranked): Angiosperms
    (unranked): Eudicots
    (unranked): Asterids
    Order: Asterales
    Family: Campanulaceae
    Subfamily: Lobelioideae
    Genus: Lobelia
    L.[1]
    Type species
    Lobelia cardinalis
    L.[2]
    Synonyms[3]
    • Mecoschistum Dulac
    • Rapuntium Mill.
    • Dortmanna Hill
    • Cardinalis Fabr.
    • Laurentia Michx. ex Adans.
    • Chamula Noronha
    • Pratia Gaudich.
    • Holostigma G.Don
    • Tupa G.Don
    • Enchysia C.Presl
    • Hypsela C.Presl
    • Trimeris C.Presl
    • Tylomium C.Presl
    • Rhynchopetalum Fresen.
    • Isolobus A.DC.
    • Piddingtonia A.DC.
    • Holostigmateia Rchb.
    • Colensoa Hook.f.
    • Speirema Hook.f. & Thomson
    • Euhaynaldia Borbás
    • Dortmannia Kuntze
    • Galeatella (E.Wimm.) O.Deg. & I.Deg. in O.Degener
    • Neowimmeria O.Deg. & I.Deg
    • Calcaratolobelia Wilbur

    Lobelia (/lˈbliə, lə/[4][5][6]) is a genus of flowering plants comprising 415 species,[7] with a subcosmopolitan distribution primarily in tropical to warm temperate regions of the world, a few species extending into cooler temperate regions.[8] They are known generally as lobelias.[9]

    Contents

    • 1Description
    • 2Taxonomy
    • 3Ecology
    • 4Cultivation and uses
      • 4.1Hybrids
      • 4.2Traditional medicine
    • 5Chemical constituents
    • 6Adverse effects
    • 7Diversity
      • 7.1Mexican spurred lobelias
      • 7.2Formerly placed here
    • 8References
    • 9Further reading
    • 10External links

    Description

    The genus Lobelia comprises a substantial number of large and small annual, perennial and shrubby species, hardy and tender, from a variety of habitats, in a range of colours. Many species appear totally dissimilar from each other. However, all have simple, alternate leaves and two-lipped tubular flowers, each with five lobes. The upper two lobes may be erect while the lower three lobes may be fanned out. Flowering is often abundant and the flower colour intense, hence their popularity as ornamental garden subjects.[10]

    Taxonomy

    The genus is named after the Belgian botanist Matthias de Lobel (1538–1616).[8] Some botanists place the genus and its relatives in the separate family Lobeliaceae, others as a subfamily Lobelioideae within the Campanulaceae. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group did not make a firm decision on this, listing the genus under both families.

    Lobelia is probably the base form from which many other lobelioid genera are derived; it is therefore highly paraphyletic and not a good genus in a cladistic sense. For example, the Hawaiian species (see Hawaiian lobelioids), currently classified in several genera, originated from a single introduction to a now-submerged Hawaiian Island 15 million years ago, probably from an Asian Lobelia in Lobelia subg. Tupa.[11]

    Ecology

    Lobelia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Setaceous Hebrew Character.

    Cultivation and uses

    Several species are cultivated as ornamental plants in gardens. These include Lobelia cardinalis syn. Lobelia fulgens (cardinal flower or Indian pink), Lobelia siphilitica (blue lobelia), and Lobelia erinus, which is used for edging and window boxes.[10]

    Hybrids

    Numerous hybrids have been produced, notably Lobelia × speciosa, a hybrid derived from L. fulgens, L. cardinalis & L. siphilitica. The term “fan hybrids” is also used.[12] This plant is borderline hardy and requires fertile, moist soil. It is suitable for summer bedding schemes or growing in containers. The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit:-

    • L. × speciosa ‘Fan Orchidrosa’[13]
    • L. × speciosa ‘Fan Scharlach’[14]
    • L. × speciosa ‘Fan Tiefrot’[15]
    • L. × speciosa ‘Fan Zinnoberrosa’[16]
    • L. × speciosa ‘Kompliment Scharlach’[17]
    • L. × speciosa ‘Pink Elephant’[18]

    Traditional medicine[edit]

    Native Americans used lobelia to treat respiratory and muscle disorders, and as a purgative. The species used most commonly in modern herbalism is Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco).[19] However, there are adverse effects that limit the use of lobelia.[20]

    Lobelia has been used as “asthmador” in Appalachian folk medicine[21]

    Two species, L. siphilitica and L. cardinalis, were once considered a cure for syphilis.[22]

    Herbalist Samuel Thomson popularized medicinal use of lobelia in the United States in the early 19th century, as well as other medicinal plants like goldenseal.[19] The eccentric New Englander Elias Smith, a preacher and alternative medicine advocate, plagiarized much of Thomson’s system. A unique feature of Smith’s system was the identification of Lobelia (a.k.a. pukeweed) with the ‘plant of renown’ referred to in Ezekiel 34:29.[23] Believing that the United States held eschatological significance, Smith believed that this plant was provided by God to democratize medical treatment, just as Smith’s preaching was a democratization of theology.

    One species, Lobelia chinensis (called bàn biān lián, 半边莲 in Chinese), is used as one of the fifty fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine.

    One unpublished study showed that lobeline—an alkaloid derived from lobelia—is ineffective in helping people to quit smoking after 6 weeks.[24]

    Chemical constituents

    Lobelia - Chi Lobelia 220px Lobelane

     

    Lobelane[25]

    Lobelia - Chi Lobelia 220px Isolobelanine

     

    Isolobelanine

    Extracts of Lobelia inflata contain lobeline, which can reverse P-glycoprotein-dependent drug resistance in certain tumor cell lines in vitro.[26]Lobelia chinensis contains apigenin, lobeline, lobelanine, isolobelanine, lobelanidine, quercetin, coumarins, glucosides and various flavonoids.[27][28][29]

    Adverse effects

    Because of its similarity to nicotine, the internal use of lobelia may be dangerous to susceptible populations, including children, pregnant women,[30] and individuals with cardiac disease. Excessive use will cause nausea and vomiting.[31] It is not recommended for use by pregnant women and is best administered by a practitioner qualified in its use. It also has a chemical known as lobellicyonycin,[citation needed] which may cause dizziness.

    Diversity

    Species include:[32][33]

    • Lobelia aberdarica R.E. & T.C.E.Fries (Kenya, Uganda)
    • Lobelia anatina F.Wimmer – southwestern blue lobelia
    • Lobelia anceps L.f.
    • Lobelia appendiculata A.DC
    • Lobelia arnhemiaca E.Wimm (Western Australia)[34]
    • Lobelia assurgens L.
    • Lobelia bambuseti
    • Lobelia berlandieri A.DC.
    • Lobelia boykinii Torr. & A.Gray ex A.DC.
    • Lobelia canbyi A.Gray
    • Lobelia cardinalis L. (syn. L. fulgens) – cardinal flower (Americas)
    • Lobelia chinensis Lour. – Chinese: 半边莲; pinyin: bàn biān lián (East and South Asia)
    • Lobelia collina Kunth (Ecuador)
    • Lobelia comosa
    • Lobelia coronopifolia
    • Lobelia deckenii Hemsl. (Eastern Africa)
    • Lobelia dentata Cav. (eastern Australia)
    • Lobelia dortmanna L. (northern North America and Europe)
    • Lobelia erinus L. – edging lobelia (southern Africa)
    • Lobelia flaccidifolia Small
    • Lobelia flaccida
    • Lobelia gattingeri
    • Lobelia gaudichaudii A.DC (Oʻahu, Hawaii)
    • Lobelia gerardii
    • Lobelia gibberoa Hemsl.
    • Lobelia heterophylla Labill.
    • Lobelia hypoleuca Hillebr.kuhiʻaikamoʻowahie (Hawaii)
    • Lobelia ilicifolia (syn. L. purpurascens) – purple lobelia
    • Lobelia inflata L. – Indian tobacco (eastern North America)
    • Lobelia kalmii L. (northern North America)
    • Lobelia laxiflora Kunth – Sierra Madre lobelia
    • Lobelia leschenaultiana (C.Presl) Skottsb.
    • Lobelia monostachya (Rock) Lammers (Oʻahu, Hawaii)
    • Lobelia nicotianifolia – wild tobacco
    • Lobelia niihauensis H.St.John (Hawaii)
    • Lobelia nuttallii J.A.Schultes (eastern North America)
    • Lobelia oahuensis Rock (Oʻahu, Hawaii)
    • Lobelia oligophylla (Wedd.) Lammers[35]
    • Lobelia pedunculata R.Br. – matted pratia, trailing pratia (Australia)
    • Lobelia persicifolia Lam.
    • Lobelia pratioides Benth. – poison lobelia (Australia)
    • Lobelia pinifolia
    • Lobelia puberula Michx. (eastern and south-central United States)
    • Lobelia pyramidalis Wall.
    • Lobelia rhombifolia de Vriese
    • Lobelia rosea Wall. ex Roxb.
    • Lobelia sessilifolia Lamb.
    • Lobelia siphilitica L. (eastern and central North America)
    • Lobelia spicata Lam.
    • Lobelia telekii Scwheinf (Kenya, Uganda)
    • Lobelia tenuior R.Br.
    • Lobelia thapsoidea Schott (southeastern Brazil)
    • Lobelia tupa L. (central Chile)
    • Lobelia urens L. – heath lobelia
    • Lobelia valida L.Bolus
    • Lobelia zeylanica L.

    Lobelia - Chi Lobelia 220px Lobelia

     

    Erect Lobelia plant

    Lobelia - Chi Lobelia 220px MtKenyaLobelia

     

    Giant lobelias (Lobelia deckenii), Mount Kenya

    Mexican spurred lobelias

    About eleven species native to Mexico and Central America have spurs on the flowers. These spurred lobelias appear to form a monophyletic group. Most have been classified in the genera Heterotoma (or sometimes Calcaratolobelia). However, since their closest relatives such as Lobelia anatina are in Lobelia, Koopman and Ayers classify them in Lobelia.[36]

    Partial list:

    • Lobelia aurita (Heterotoma aurita). One of the most common understory plants in the Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests.[37]
    • Lobelia calcarata (Heterotoma lobelioides[38][full citation needed] or Lobelia lobelioides[36])
    • Lobelia cordifolia (Heterotoma cordifolia)[35]
    • Lobelia flexuosa (Heterotoma flexuosa)[35]
    • Lobelia mcvaughii[35]
    • Lobelia volcanica (Heterotoma tenella)[35]

    Formerly placed here

    • Apteria aphylla (Nutt.) Barnhart ex Small (as L. aphylla Nutt.)
    • Centropogon cornutus (L.) Druce (as L. cornuta L. or L. surinamensis L.)
    • Cyanea angustifolia (Cham.) Hillebr. (as L. angustifolia Cham.)
    • Cyanea calycina (Cham.) Lammers (as L. calycina Cham.)
    • Cyanea crispa (Gaudich.) Lammers et al. (as L. crispa (Gaudich.) Endl.)
    • Cyanea pinnatifida (Cham.) E. Wimm. (as L. pinnatifida Cham.)
    • Cyanea superba (Cham.) A.Gray (as L. superba Cham.)
    • Hippobroma longiflora (L.) G.Don (as L. longiflora L.)
    • Mazus pumilus (Burm.f.) Steenis (as L. pumila Burm.f.)
    • Pratia angulata (G.Forst.) Hook.f. (as L. angulata G.Forst.)
    • Pratia concolor (R.Br.) Druce (as L. concolor R.Br.)
    • Pratia montana (Reinw. ex Blume) Hassk. (as L. montana Reinw. ex Blume)
    • Pratia nummularia (Lam.) A.Braun & Asch. (as L. begoniifolia Wall.)[32]

    References

    1. Jump up^ “Genus: Lobelia L.”. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1999-01-27. Retrieved 2011-02-03.
    2. Jump up^ lectotype designated by Hitchcock & Green, Nomenclature, Proposals by British Botanists 184 (1929)
    3. Jump up^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    4. Jump up^ “Lobelia”. Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2016-01-21.
    5. Jump up^ “Lobelia”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-21.
    6. Jump up^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
    7. Jump up^ Lammers, Thomas. “Revision of the Infrageneric Classification of Lobelia L. (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae)”. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 98: 37–62. doi:10.3417/2007150.
    8. ^ Jump up to:ab Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
    9. Jump up^ Lobelia. USDA PLANTS.
    10. ^ Jump up to:ab RHS A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
    11. Jump up^ Craig C. Buss; Thomas G. Lammers; Robert R. Wise; Craig C. Buss; Thomas G. Lammers; Robert R. Wise (2001). “Seed Coat Morphology and Its Systematic Implications in Cyanea and Other Genera of Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae)”. American Journal of Botany. 88 (7): 1301–1308. doi:10.2307/3558341. JSTOR 3558341. PMID 11454630.
    12. Jump up^ Paghat’s Garden: “Fan Burgundy” Cardinal Flower
    13. Jump up^ “RHS Plant Selector – Lobelia x speciosa ‘Fan Orchidrosa'”. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
    14. Jump up^ “RHS Plant Selector – Lobelia x speciosa ‘Fan Scharlach'”. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
    15. Jump up^ “RHS Plant Selector – Lobelia x speciosa ‘Fan Tiefrot'”. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
    16. Jump up^ “RHS Plant Selector – Lobelia x speciosa ‘Fan Zinnoberrosa'”. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
    17. Jump up^ “RHS Plant Selector – Lobelia x speciosa ‘Kompliment Scharlach'”. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
    18. Jump up^ “RHS Plant Selector – Lobelia x speciosa ‘Pink Elephant'”. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
    19. ^ Jump up to:ab “Lobelia”. EBSCO Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Review Board. January 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
    20. Jump up^ “Risky pills: Supplements to avoid”. Consumer reports. 73 (1): 46–7. 2008. PMID 18488285.
    21. Jump up^ AJ Giannini, AE Slaby, MC Giannini. Handbook of Overdose and Detoxification Emergencies. New Hyde Park, NY Medical Examination Publishing,1982. Pp.53-56. ISBN 0-87488-182-X
    22. Jump up^ Guédon, Marie-Françoise (2000). Sacred Smudging in North America. Walkabout Press.
    23. Jump up^ Timothy Earl Fulop, “Elias Smith and the Quest for Gospel Liberty: Popular Religion and Democratic Radicalism in Early Nineteenth-Century New England”, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Religion, Princeton University, 1992 p.246
    24. Jump up^ Lancaster, T; Stead, L; Silagy, C; Sowden, A (2000). “Effectiveness of interventions to help people stop smoking: findings from the Cochrane Library”. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 321 (7257): 355–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7257.355. PMC 1118332Freely accessible  Lobelia - Chi Lobelia 9px Lock green. PMID 10926597.
    25. Jump up^ Horton, D. B.; Siripurapu, K. B.; Zheng, G; Crooks, P. A.; Dwoskin, L. P. (2011). “Novel N-1,2-dihydroxypropyl analogs of lobelane inhibit vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function and methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release”. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 339 (1): 286–97. doi:10.1124/jpet.111.184770. PMC 3186287Freely accessible  Lobelia - Chi Lobelia 9px Lock green. PMID 21778282.
    26. Jump up^ Ma Y, Wink M (Sep 2008). “Lobeline, a piperidine alkaloid from Lobelia can reverse P-gp dependent multidrug resistance in tumor cells”. Phytomedicine. 15 (9): 754–8. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2007.11.028. PMID 18222670.
    27. Jump up^ Chen, J. X.; Huang, S. H.; Wang, Y; Shao, M; Ye, W. C. (2010). “Studies on the chemical constituents from Lobelia chinensis”. Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials. 33 (11): 1721–4. PMID 21434431.
    28. Jump up^ Chen, M. W.; Chen, W. R.; Zhang, J. M.; Long, X. Y.; Wang, Y. T. (2014). “Lobelia chinensis: Chemical constituents and anticancer activity perspective”. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines. 12 (2): 103–7. doi:10.1016/S1875-5364(14)60016-9. PMID 24636059.
    29. Jump up^ Yang, S; Shen, T; Zhao, L; Li, C; Zhang, Y; Lou, H; Ren, D (2014). “Chemical constituents of Lobelia chinensis”. Fitoterapia. 93: 168–74. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2014.01.007. PMID 24444893.
    30. Jump up^ Lobelia, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
    31. Jump up^ Lobelia, drugs.com
    32. ^ Jump up to:ab “GRIN Species Records of Lobelia“. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1999-01-27. Retrieved 2011-02-03.
    33. Jump up^ Lobelia“. Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
    34. Jump up^ http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/browse/profile.php/37480
    35. ^ Jump up to:abcde World Checklist
    36. ^ Jump up to:ab Koopman, M. M.; Ayers, T. J. (2005). “Nectar spur evolution in the Mexican lobelias (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae)”. American Journal of Botany. 92 (3): 558–62. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.3.558. PMID 21652434.
    37. Jump up^ Díaz, Sara C.; Touchan, Ramzi; Swetnam, Thomas W. (2001). “A tree-ring reconstruction of past precipitation for Baja California Sur, Mexico”. International Journal of Climatology. 21 (8): 1007–1019. doi:10.1002/joc.664.
    38. Jump up^ ipni.org

    Further reading

    Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2.

    External links

    • Lobelia - Chi Lobelia 14px Wikispecies logo Data related to Lobelia at Wikispecies
    • Dressler, S.; Schmidt, M. & Zizka, G. (2014). “Lobelia“. African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.