Phyllanthus – Chi Phyllanthus

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    Phyllanthus - Chi Phyllanthus Phyllanthus aquaticum genus freshwater aquarium plants 600 x 600
     
    Đánh giá bài này

    Species from this Genus – Các cây trong Chi này:

    Phyllanthus

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
     
    For the bird genus of the same name, see Capuchin babbler.
    Not to be confused with Philanthus.
    Phyllanthus
    Phyllanthus mirabilis5 ies.jpg  Phyllanthus - Chi Phyllanthus 220px Phyllanthus mirabilis5 ies
    Phyllanthus mirabilis
    Scientific classification
    Kingdom: Plantae
    (unranked): Angiosperms
    (unranked): Eudicots
    (unranked): Rosids
    Order: Malpighiales
    Family: Phyllanthaceae
    Tribe: Phyllantheae
    Genus: Phyllanthus
    L.
    Diversity
    About 800 species
    Synonyms[1]

    Phyllanthus - Chi Phyllanthus 220px Gardenology

     

    Plagiotropic shoots of Phyllanthus pulcher

    Phyllanthus - Chi Phyllanthus 220px Otaheite gooseberry

     

    Fruit of Phyllanthus acidus

    Phyllanthus - Chi Phyllanthus 220px Phyllanthus acidus 2

     

    Male and female flowers of Phyllanthus acidus

    Phyllanthus - Chi Phyllanthus 220px IMG 7294 Phyllanthus angustifolius

     

    Flattened stems and flowers of Phyllanthus angustifolius

    Phyllanthus is the largest genus in the flowering plant family Phyllanthaceae. Estimates of the number species in this genus vary widely, from 750[2] to 1200.[3]Phyllanthus has a remarkable diversity of growth forms including annual and perennial herbs, shrubs, climbers, floating aquatics, and pachycaulous succulents. Some have flattened leaflike stems called cladodes. It has a wide variety of floral morphologies and chromosome numbers and has one of the widest range of pollen types of any seed plant genus.

    Despite their variety, almost all Phyllanthus species express a specific type of growth called “phyllanthoid branching” in which the vertical stems bear deciduous, floriferous (flower-bearing), plagiotropic (horizontal or oblique) stems. The leaves on the main (vertical) axes are reduced to scales called “cataphylls”, while leaves on the other axes develop normally.[4]Phyllanthus is distributed in all tropical and subtropical regions on Earth. Leafflower is the common name for all Phyllanthus species.[citation needed]

    The circumscription of this genus has been a cause of much confusion and disagreement. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that Phyllanthus is paraphyletic over Reverchonia, Glochidion, Sauropus, and Breynia. A recent revision of the family Phyllanthaceae has subsumed all four of these genera into Phyllanthus.[5] This enlarged version of Phyllanthus might eventually be divided into smaller genera, but much more research will be needed before anyone knows how to do this. Progress continues to be made in this area.[6][7] Also see Taxonomy of the Phyllanthaceae and Phyllanthaceae.

    Contents

    • 1Selected species
    • 2Research and traditional medicine
    • 3References
    • 4External links

    Selected species

    • Phyllanthus abnormis Baill.
    • Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels – Otaheite gooseberry
    • Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl – Jamaican gooseberry tree
    • Phyllanthus amarus Schumacher
    • Phyllanthus angustifolius (Sw.) Sw.
    • Phyllanthus arbuscula (Sw.) J.F.Gmel.
    • Phyllanthus atropurpureus Bojer
    • Phyllanthus brasiliensis (Aubl.) Poir.
    • Phyllanthus caesiifolius Petra Hoffm. & Cheek
    • Phyllanthus caroliniensis Walt. – native to the Americas
    • Phyllanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.
    • Phyllanthus cuneifolius (Britt.) Croizat
    • Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd.
    • Phyllanthus emblica L. – Indian gooseberry, also known as amla or amalaki.
    • Phyllanthus engleri Pax
    • Phyllanthus epiphyllanthus L.
    • Phyllanthus ericoides Torr.
    • Phyllanthus fluitans – red root floater, sometimes sold in aquarium shops
    • Phyllanthus fraternus G.L.Webster
    • Phyllanthus gentryi Webster
    • Phyllanthus grandifolius L.
    • Phyllanthus haughtii Croizat
    • Phyllanthus hakgalensis
    • Phyllanthus juglandifolius Willd.
    • Phyllanthus lacunarius F.Muell.
    • Phyllanthus liebmannianus Muell.-Arg.
    • Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L.
    • Phyllanthus microcladus Muell.-Arg.
    • Phyllanthus mirabilis Müll.Arg. – the only succulent species of this genus
    • Phyllanthus myrtifolius – Wight. Muell. Arg.
    • Phyllanthus muellerianus (Kuntze) Exell
    • Phyllanthus niruri L. – Chanca piedra (Also includes P. amarus and P. debilis)
    • Phyllanthus parvifolius Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
    • Phyllanthus piscatorum Kunth
    • Phyllanthus pentaphyllus C. Wright ex Griseb.
    • Phyllanthus polygonoides Nutt. ex Spreng.
    • Phyllanthus polyspermus Shumach. & Thonn. – often misidentified as P. reticulatus[8]
    • Phyllanthus profusus N.E.Br.
    • Phyllanthus pseudocanami Müll.Arg.
    • Phyllanthus pudens L.C. Wheeler
    • Phyllanthus pulcher Wallich ex Muell.-Arg.
    • Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. – similar in appearance to P. polyspermus[8]
    • Phyllanthus saffordii Merr.
    • Phyllanthus salviifolius Kunth
    • Phyllanthus sepialis Müll.Arg.[9]
    • Phyllanthus stipulatus (Raf.) G.L. Webster
    • Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.
    • Phyllanthus urinaria L. – chamberbitter
    • Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst.
    • Phyllanthus watsonii A. Shaw

    For full list, see List of Phyllanthus species.

    Research and traditional medicine

    Particularly for its content of tannins, P. emblica fruit has a history of use in traditional medicine and is under study for its potential biological properties.[10] Leaves, roots, stem, bark and berries of this genus contain lignans and other phytochemicals.[11][12][13]

    Phyllanthus species have been assessed for use in people with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, but the low quality of clinical trials has prevented any conclusion about efficacy as of 2013.[14][15]

    References

    1. Jump up^ “World Checklist of Selected Plant Families”.
    2. Jump up^ David J. Mabberley. 2008. Mabberley’s Plant-Book. third edition (2008). Cambridge University Press.[page needed]
    3. Jump up^ Kathriarachchi H, Hoffmann P, Samuel R, Wurdack KJ, Chase MW (July 2005). “Molecular phylogenetics of Phyllanthaceae inferred from five genes (plastid atpB, matK, 3’ndhF, rbcL, and nuclear PHYC)”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (1): 112–34. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.12.002. PMID 15904861.
    4. Jump up^ Webster, Grady L. (1994). “Classification of the Euphorbiaceae”. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 81 (1): 3–32. doi:10.2307/2399908. JSTOR 2399908.
    5. Jump up^ Hoffmann, Petra; Kathriarachchi, Hashendra S.; Wurdack, Kenneth J. (2006). “A Phylogenetic Classification of Phyllanthaceae”. Kew Bulletin. 61 (1): 37–53.
    6. Jump up^ Kathriarachchi, Hashendra S.; Samuel, Rosabelle; Hoffmann, Petra; Mlinarec, Jelena; Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Ralimanana, Hélène; Stuessy, Tod F.; Chase, Mark W. (2006). “Phylogenetics of tribe Phyllantheae (Phyllanthaceae) based on nrITS and plastid matK DNA sequence data”. American Journal of Botany. 93 (4): 637–655. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.4.637. PMID 21646224.
    7. Jump up^ Kanchana Pruesapan, Ian R.H. Telford, Jeremy J. Bruhl, Stefano G.A. Draisma, and Peter C. Van Welzen. 2008. “Delimitation of Sauropus (Phyllanthaceae) Based on Plastid matK and Nuclear Ribosomal ITS DNA Sequence Data.” Annals of Botany 102(6):1007-1018. (see External links below)
    8. ^ Jump up to:ab Luo, S.X., H.-J. Esser, D. Zhang, and S. S. Renner. 2011. Nuclear ITS sequences help disentangle Phyllanthus reticulatus (Phyllanthaceae), an Asian species not occurring in Africa, but introduced to Jamaica. Systematic Botany 36(1): 99-104.
    9. Jump up^ Bussmann, R. W.; Gilbreath, GG; Solio, J; Lutura, M; Lutuluo, R; Kunguru, K; Wood, N; Mathenge, SG (2006). “Plant use of the Maasai of Sekenani Valley, Maasai Mara, Kenya”. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2: 22. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-22. PMC 1475560Freely accessible  Phyllanthus - Chi Phyllanthus 9px Lock green. PMID 16674830.
    10. Jump up^ Yang, B; Liu, P (2014). “Composition and biological activities of hydrolyzable tannins of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62 (3): 529–41. doi:10.1021/jf404703k. PMID 24369850.
    11. Jump up^ Murugaiyah V, Chan KL (June 2007). “Determination of four lignans in Phyllanthus niruri L. by a simple high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection”. Journal of Chromatography A. 1154 (1–2): 198–204. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2007.03.079. PMID 17418855.
    12. Jump up^ Srivastava V, Singh M, Malasoni R, et al. (January 2008). “Separation and quantification of lignans in Phyllanthus species by a simple chiral densitometric method”. Journal of Separation Science. 31 (1): 47–55. doi:10.1002/jssc.200700282. PMID 18064620.
    13. Jump up^ Bagalkotkar G, Sagineedu SR, Saad MS, Stanslas J (December 2006). “Phytochemicals from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and their pharmacological properties: a review”. The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 58 (12): 1559–70. doi:10.1211/jpp.58.12.0001. PMID 17331318.
    14. Jump up^ Liu, J; Lin, H; McIntosh, H (2001). “Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review”. Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 8 (5): 358–66. PMID 11555193.
    15. Jump up^ Xia, Y; Luo, H; Liu, J. P.; Gluud, C (2013). “Phyllanthus species versus antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B virus infection”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD009004. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009004.pub2. PMID 23633363.

    External links

    • Kathriarachchi, Hashendra; Hoffmann, Petra; Samuel, Rosabelle; Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Chase, Mark W. (2005). “Molecular phylogenetics of Phyllanthaceae inferred from five genes (plastid atpB, matK, 3′ndhF, rbcL, and nuclear PHYC)”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (1): 112–34. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.12.002. PMID 15904861.
    • Pruesapan, K.; Telford, I. R. H.; Bruhl, J. J.; Draisma, S. G. A.; Van Welzen, P. C. (2008). “Delimitation of Sauropus (Phyllanthaceae) Based on Plastid matK and Nuclear Ribosomal ITS DNA Sequence Data”. Annals of Botany. 102 (6): 1007–18. doi:10.1093/aob/mcn193. PMC 2712409Freely accessible  Phyllanthus - Chi Phyllanthus 9px Lock green. PMID 18854375.