Typha – Chi Typha

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    Typha - Chi Typha Typha aquaticum genus freshwater aquarium plants 600 x 600
     
    Đánh giá bài này

    Species from this Genus – Các cây trong Chi này:

    Typha

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
     
    Cattail
    Tmp 990-Kaveldun-307498550.jpg  Typha - Chi Typha 220px Tmp 990 Kaveldun 307498550
    Typha latifolia
    Scientific classification
    Kingdom: Plantae
    (unranked): Angiosperms
    (unranked): Monocots
    (unranked): Commelinids
    Order: Poales
    Family: Typhaceae
    Genus: Typha
    L.
    Synonyms[1]
    • Massula Dulac
    • Rohrbachia (Kronf. ex Riedl) Mavrodiev
    Cattail, narrow leaf shoots
    Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
    Energy 106 kJ (25 kcal)
     
    Carbohydrates
    5.14 g
    Sugars 0.22 g
    Dietary fiber 4.5 g
     
    Fat
    0.00 g
     
    Protein
    1.18 g
     
    Vitamins
    Vitamin A equiv.
    beta-carotene
    (0%)

    1 μg

    (0%)

    6 μg

    Thiamine (B1)
    (2%)

    0.023 mg

    Riboflavin (B2)
    (2%)

    0.025 mg

    Niacin (B3)
    (3%)

    0.440 mg

    Pantothenic acid (B5)
    (5%)

    0.234 mg

    Vitamin B6
    (9%)

    0.123 mg

    Folate (B9)
    (1%)

    3 μg

    Choline
    (5%)

    23.7 mg

    Vitamin C
    (1%)

    0.7 mg

    Vitamin K
    (22%)

    22.8 μg

     
    Minerals
    Calcium
    (5%)

    54 mg

    Iron
    (7%)

    0.91 mg

    Magnesium
    (18%)

    63 mg

    Manganese
    (36%)

    0.760 mg

    Phosphorus
    (6%)

    45 mg

    Potassium
    (7%)

    309 mg

    Sodium
    (7%)

    109 mg

    Zinc
    (3%)

    0.24 mg

     
    Other constituents
    Water 92.65 g
    • Units
    • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
    • IU = International units
    Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
    Source: USDA Nutrient Database

    Typha /ˈtfə/ is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae.

    The genus is largely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, where it is found in a variety of wetland habitats.

    These plants have many common names. They may be known in British English as bulrush, or reedmace,[2] in American English as cattail,[3]punks, or corn dog grass, in Australia as cumbungi or bulrush, in Canada as bulrush or cattail, and in New Zealand as raupō. Other taxa of plants may be known as bulrush, including some sedges in Scirpus and related genera.

    The rhizomes are edible. Evidence of preserved starch grains on grinding stones suggests they were already eaten in Europe 30,000 years ago.[4]

    Contents

    • 1Description
    • 2General ecology
    • 3Accepted species and natural hybrids
    • 4Uses
      • 4.1Chair seating
      • 4.2Culinary uses
      • 4.3Agriculture
      • 4.4Building material
      • 4.5Paper
      • 4.6Fiber
      • 4.7Biofuel
      • 4.8Other uses
    • 5References
    • 6External links

    Description

    Typha leaves are alternate and mostly basal on a simple, jointless stem that bears the flowering spikes. The plants are monoecious, with unisexual flowers that develop in dense racemes. The numerous male flowers form a narrow spike at the top of the vertical stem. Each male (staminate) flower is reduced to a pair of stamens and hairs, and withers once the pollen is shed. Large numbers of tiny female flowers form a dense, sausage-shaped spike on the stem below the male spike. In larger species this can be up to 30 centimetres (12 in) long and 1 to 4 centimetres (0.4 to 2 in) thick. The seeds are minute, 0.2 millimetres (0.008 in) long, and attached to fine hairs. When ripe, the heads disintegrate into a cottony fluff from which the seeds disperse by wind.

    General ecology

    Typha are often among the first wetland plants to colonize areas of newly exposed wet mud, with their abundant wind dispersed seeds. Buried seeds can survive in the soil for long periods of time.[5] They germinate best with sunlight and fluctuating temperatures, which is typical of many wetland plants that regenerate on mud flats.[6] The plants also spread by rhizomes, forming large, interconnected stands.

    Typha are considered to be dominant competitors in wetlands in many areas, and they often exclude other plants with their dense canopy.[7] In the bays of the Great Lakes, for example, they are among the most abundant wetland plants. Different species of cattails are adapted to different water depths.[8]

    Well-developed aerenchyma make the plants tolerant of submersion. Even the dead stalks are capable of transmitting oxygen to the rooting zone.

    Although Typha are native wetland plants, they can be aggressive in their competition with other native species.[9] They have been problematic in many regions in North America, from the Great Lakes to the Everglades.[7] Native sedges are displaced and wet meadows shrink, likely as a response to altered hydrology of the wetlands and increased nutrient levels. An introduced or hybrid species may be contributing to the problem.[10]Control is difficult. The most successful strategy appears to be mowing or burning to remove the aerenchymous stalks, followed by prolonged flooding.[11] It may be more important to prevent invasion by preserving water level fluctuations, including periods of drought, and to maintain infertile conditions.[7]

    Typha are frequently eaten by wetland mammals such as muskrats, which may[weasel words] also use them to construct feeding platforms and dens.[citation needed] Birds use the seed hairs as nest lining.[citation needed]

    Accepted species and natural hybrids

    The following names are currently accepted:[12]

    1. Typha albida – (Afghanistan)
    2. Typha alekseevii – (Caucasus)
    3. Typha angustifolia – lesser bulrush, narrow leaf cattail (America), or jambu (India)
    4. Typha × argoviensis – (Germany + Switzerland)
    5. Typha austro-orientalis – (European Russia)
    6. Typha azerbaijanensis – (Iran)
    7. Typha × bavarica – (Germany)
    8. Typha capensis – (tropical and southern Africa)
    9. Typha caspica – (Azerbaijan)
    10. Typha changbaiensis – (northeastern China)
    11. Typha davidiana – (China)
    12. Typha domingensis – bulrush, southern cattail (America), narrow-leaved cumbungi (Australia)
    13. Typha elephantina – (from Algeria to southern China)
    14. Typha × gezei – (France)
    15. Typha × glauca (T. angustifolia × T. latifolia) – hybrid cattail, white cattail (a sterile hybrid)[13]
    16. Typha grossheimii – central Asia
    17. Typha incana – central Russia
    18. Typha joannis – Mongolia + Amur Oblast
    19. Typha kalatensis – Iran
    20. Typha latifolia – common cattail – very widespread
    21. Typha laxmannii – Laxman’s bulrush – southern Europe + much of Asia
    22. Typha lugdunensis – western Europe, southwest Asia, China
    23. Typha minima – dwarf bulrush – Europe + Asia
    24. Typha orientalis – East Asia, Australia, New Zealand
    25. Typha pallida – Central Asia, China
    26. Typha × provincialis – France
    27. Typha przewalskii – China, Russian Far East
    28. Typha shuttleworthii – Europe, Iran, Turkey
    29. Typha sistanica – Iran
    30. Typha × smirnovii – European Russia
    31. Typha subulata – Argentina, Uruguay
    32. Typha × suwensis – Japan
    33. Typha tichomirovii – European Russia
    34. Typha turcomanica – Turkmenistan
    35. Typha tzvelevii – Primorye
    36. Typha valentinii – Azerbaijan
    37. Typha varsobica – Tajikistan

    Typha - Chi Typha 170px Typha cattails in indiana

     

    Typha at the edge of a small wetland in Indiana

    Typha - Chi Typha 170px Typha with without cotton like seeds

     

    Typha latifolia ( gama?) in Japan

    Typha - Chi Typha 220px Bruno Piglhein  281848 1894 29 2C  22Hirtenknabe 22

     

    Typha in art. Bruno Piglhein, Hirtenknabe (“Shepherd Boy”).

    The most widespread species is Typha latifolia, which is distributed across the entire temperate northern hemisphere. It has also been introduced to Australia. T. angustifolia is nearly as widespread, but does not extend as far north; it may be introduced and invasive in North America. T. domingensis has a more southern American distribution, and it occurs in Australia. T. orientalis is widespread in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. T. laxmannii, T. minima, and T. shuttleworthii are largely restricted to Asia and southern Europe.

    Uses

    Chair seating

    The rushes are harvested and the leaves often dried for later use in chair seats. Re-wetted, the leaves are twisted and wrapped around the chair rungs to form a densely woven seat that is then stuffed (usually with the left over rush).

    Culinary uses

    Many parts of the Typha plant are edible to humans. The starchy rhizomes are nutritious with a protein content comparable to that of maize or rice.[14] They can be processed into a flour with 266 kcal per 100 grams.[4] They are most often harvested from late autumn to early spring. They are fibrous, and the starch must be scraped or sucked from the tough fibers. Plants growing in polluted water can accumulate lead and pesticide residues in their rhizomes, and these should not be eaten.[15]

    The outer portion of young plants can be peeled and the heart can be eaten raw or boiled and eaten like asparagus. This food has been popular among the Cossacks in Russia, and has been called “Cossack asparagus”.[16] The leaf bases can be eaten raw or cooked, especially in late spring when they are young and tender. In early summer the sheath can be removed from the developing green flower spike, which can then be boiled and eaten like corn on the cob.[17] In mid-summer when the male flowers are mature, the pollen can be collected and used as a flour supplement or thickener.[18]

    Agriculture

    The seeds have a high linoleic acid content and can be used to feed cattle and chickens.[19] They can also be found in African countries like Ghana.

    Building material

    For local tribes around Lake Titicaca in Peru and Bolivia, Typha were among the most important plants and every part of the plant had multiple uses. For example, they were used to construct rafts and other boats.[14]

    During World War II, the United States Navy used the down of Typha as a substitute for kapok in life vests and aviation jackets. Tests showed that even after 100 hours of submersion the buoyancy was still effective.[20]

    Typha are used as thermal insulation in buildings as an organic alternative to conventional insulating materials such as glass wool or stone wool.

    Paper

    Typha stems and leaves can be used to make paper. It is strong with a heavy texture and it is hard to bleach, so it is not suitable for industrial production of graphical paper. In 1853, considerable amounts of cattail paper were produced in New York, due to a shortage of raw materials.[21] In 1948, French scientists tested methods for annual harvesting of the leaves. Because of the high cost these methods were abandoned and no further research was done.[14] Today Typha is used to make decorative paper.[citation needed]

    Fiber

    Fibers up to 4 meters long can be obtained from the stems when they are mechanically or chemically treated with sodium hydroxide. The stem fibers resemble jute and can be used to produce raw textiles. The leaf fibers can be used as an alternative to cotton and linen in clothing. The yield of leaf fiber is 30 to 40 percent and Typha glauca can produce 7 to 10 tons per hectare annually.[14]

    Biofuel

    Typha can be used as a source of starch to produce ethanol. Because of their high productivity in northern latitudes, Typha are considered to be a bioenergy crop.[22]

    Other uses

    The seed hairs were used by some Indigenous peoples of the Americas as tinder for starting fires. Some tribes also used Typha down to line moccasins, and for bedding, diapers, baby powder, and cradleboards. One Native American word for Typha meant “fruit for papoose’s bed”[citation needed]. Typha down is still used in some areas to stuff clothing items and pillows.

    Typha can be dipped in wax or fat and then lit as a candle, the stem serving as a wick. Without the use of wax or fat it will smolder slowly, somewhat like incense, and may repel insects.

    One informal experiment has indicated that Typha are able to remove arsenic from drinking water. The boiled rootstocks have been used as a diuretic for increasing urination, or mashed to make a jelly-like paste for sores, boils, wounds, burns, scabs, and smallpox pustules.[23]

    References

    1. Jump up^ “World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew”. kew.org.
    2. Jump up^ Clegg, J. (1986). Observer’s Book of Pond Life. Frederick Warne, London. 460 p.
    3. Jump up^ Typha“. Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
    4. ^ Jump up to:ab Revedin, A.; et al. (2010). “Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107 (44): 18815–18819. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10718815R. doi:10.1073/pnas.1006993107. PMC 2973873Freely accessible  Typha - Chi Typha 9px Lock green. PMID 20956317.
    5. Jump up^ van der Valk, A. G. and Davis, C. B. (1976). The seed banks of prairie glacial marshes. Canadian Journal of Botany 54, 1832–8.
    6. Jump up^ Shipley, B., et al. (1989). Regeneration and establishment strategies of emergent macrophytes. Journal of Ecology 77, 1093–1110.
    7. ^ Jump up to:abc Keddy, P. A. (2010). Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation. Cambridge University Press. p. 497. ISBN 978-0-521-51940-3.
    8. Jump up^ Grace, J. B. and Wetzel, R. G. (1981). Habitat partitioning and competitive displacement in cattails (Typha): experimental field studies. The American Naturalist 118, 463–74.
    9. Jump up^ Oudhia, P. (1999). Allelopathic effects of Typha angustata on germination and seedling vigour of winter maize and rice. Agric. Sci. Digest 19(4): 285-286
    10. Jump up^ Boers, A. M., et al. (2007). Typha × glauca dominance and extended hydroperiod constrain restoration of wetland diversity. Ecological Engineering 29, 232–44.
    11. Jump up^ Kaminski, R. M., et al. (1985). Control of cattail and bulrush by cutting and flooding. In: Coastal Wetlands, eds. H. H. Prince and F. M. D’Itri, pp. 253–62. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers.
    12. Jump up^ “Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, genusTypha. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
    13. Jump up^ Selbo, S. M.; Snow, A. A. (2004). “The potential for hybridization between Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia in a constructed wetland” (PDF). Aquatic Botany. 78 (4): 361–369. doi:10.1016/j.aquabot.2004.01.003.
    14. ^ Jump up to:abcd Morton, J. F. (January–March 1975). “Cattails (Typha spp.) – Weed Problem or Potential Crop?”. Economic Botany. 29 (1): 7–29. doi:10.1007/bf02861252.
    15. Jump up^ Gore, A. B. (2007). Environmental Research at the Leading Edge. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. p. 106.
    16. Jump up^ Marsh, L. C. (1959). “The Cattail Story”. The Garden Journal. 5: 114–129.
    17. Jump up^ Elias, T. S.; Dykeman, P. A. (2009) [1982]. Edible Wild Plants. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-1-4027-6715-9.
    18. Jump up^ Raupo or Bulrush (Typha orientalis). Tai Awatea. Accessed 15 December 2011.
    19. Jump up^ Reed, E.; Marsh, L. C. (1955). “The Cattail Potential”. Chemurgic Digest. 3. 14: 9, 18.
    20. Jump up^ Miller, D. T. (1999). Edible and Useful Plants of Texas and the Southwest, Including Recipes, Harmful Plants, Natural Dyes, and Textile Fibers: A Practical Guide. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-292-78164-1.
    21. Jump up^ Making Aquatic Weeds Useful: Some Perspectives for Developing Countries. Ottawa: National Research Council.: Books for Business. 1976. p. 101. ISBN 0-89499-180-9.
    22. Jump up^ Dubbe, D. R., et al. (1988). Production of cattail (Typha spp.) biomass in Minnesota, USA. Biomass 17(2) 79–104.
    23. Jump up^ Maiden, J. H. (1889). Useful Native Plants of Australia (incl. Tasmania). Sydney: Technological Mus. New South Wales.

    External links

    • Can you actually eat cattails? from The Straight Dope